Culture plays a crucial role in the life of a community. A community or a people is
identified and revered by its flourishing culture. History shows that an oppressor....
aims to erase the identity of the oppressed and this means destroying first the oppressed
people's culture. It is for this reason that the liberation struggle of an oppressed
people also assumes the form of cultural resistance.
In Tamil Eelam the culture and civilisation of the Tamils,
which has a long, rich and valuable history is undergoing destruction on an unprecedented
scale. Whilst on the one side, the Tamil national liberation struggle.. strives
towards defending and protecting Tamil people's identity and life, on the other, the Sri
Lankan government... has taken the path of causing maximum destruction to the culture of
the Tamil people.
It is a universally accepted principle that people living in a democratic land should
be treated as equals, irrespective of language, ethnic or religious differences. But in
Sri Lanka democracy is being crushed by the tyranny of the majority - the Sinhala
Buddhist representatives - in Parliament...
Tamil Eelam was once strewn with thousands of temples, churches, mosques, libraries,
schools and statues of eminent persons and historical monuments. They were symbols of
cultural richness; a national heritage revered with pride. Today many of them have been
razed to the ground and others are in a dilapidated condition... due to ...(the) tyranny
of Buddhist fundamentalism.
To the Hindus, religion forms part and parcel of the
daily activities of their life; it is part of their way of life. Living with nature,
they respect and worship it. In this context temples not only stand as places of worship
but are also as an embodiment of cultural life; they are their cultural centres. Music,
dance, drama, education, medicine and many other essential aspects of life evolve around
All five renowned Hindu shrines that existed long before the advent of Buddhism in
Ceylon, - Thirukketheeswaram, Thirukkoneswaram, Naguleswaram, Munneswaram, and
Thondeswaram - are now under the control of Sinhala Buddhist oppressors. The first three temples are under the direct control of the occupying armed forces of
the Sri Lankan state which are made up entirely of Sinhala Buddhists except for a handful
of Christians and Muslims.
Thirukketheeswaram in the Mannar district and Thirukkoneswaram in the
Trincomalee district once attracted devotees from India. Saints Thirugnanasampantha
Moorthy (7th century A.D.) and Sunthara Moorthy (9th Century A.D.) have sung hymns in
praise of these temples.
But today Thirukketheeswaram is in ruins. The historic temple was desecrated and the
jewellery, brass utensils, oil lamps and many other valuables that were used in the temple
have been plundered by the state armed forces. The Sri Lanka Army forced out residents
living in the neighbourhood. Priests and devotees were not allowed into the temple
vicinity, and from August 1990, soldiers in their thousands have occupied of the temple
and its surroundings.
According to a letter from the Secretary of the Thirukketheeswaram Temple Restoration
Society the "most heinous and unforgivable part of the vandalism is the disfigurement
and the gouging of the Third Eye of the icon Somaskanda (Lord Siva)". A letter from
the Assistant Secretary of the Society, read that
" Not a single civilian is found within a radius of about three miles from the
temple" ...It is crystal clear that it was the army which caused all the destruction
and wanton damage to the buildings around the temple...In short, everything the Temple
Restoration Society did from 1948 onwards, at great cost and with the help of Hindu
devotees from various countries, has been undone by the Army."
He goes on further to say
"While we were at the ruined temple site we observed that even the debris of most
of the demolished buildings like Kurukulam had disappeared. There we were very reliably
informed that the building materials like stones, bricks and valuable sawn timber etc. had
all been removed from the site and used for the construction of a buffer-like wall,
similar to a rampart, north of Manthai junction, stretching towards Adampan. This was
perhaps to prevent the guerrillas from advancing towards the encampment and also to attack
them from behind the wall. Having destroyed the temple buildings with a vengeance the army
seems to have had second thoughts and put to good use the building materials found in the
debris by putting up the wall."
This destruction is reminiscent of a similar destruction of Hindu temples by the
Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. In "A Short History of Hinduism in Ceylon"
the author C. S. Navaratnam writes:
"The Sixteenth Century was a turning point in the history of Hinduism in Ceylon.
They The Portuguese) had begun to establish themselves in the country districts, and
little by little the popular temples were razed to the ground. With the fall of the Jaffna
Kingdom in 1620 all traces of Hinduism were exterminated in the Tamil districts which came
under their rule."
Thirukkoneswaram known as Southern Kailasam is another ancient Hindu
temple that the Portuguese had blasted into the sea. Ruins of the temple are still lying
on the seabed. During British rule, devotees were permitted to worship at the Swami Malai
In 1953 the structure for a new temple was laid and it was completed in April 1963. But
the Hindu devotees are in constant fear that the state army occupying the fort, within
which the temple is found, will either destroy it or harass them as they walk to the
In 1969 a Tamil Hindu minister requested the government in which he served to declare
the temple premises a sacred zone. This was at a time when the government was declaring
several Buddhist temple precincts to be sacred zones. But the government refused to accede
to his request and the Hindu minister had no option but to resign from his ministerial
Thereafter this temple too was vandalised several times. In the early part of 1993 the
temple was partly destroyed by the Sinhala Buddhists. The front door of the temple was
burnt and statues and other temple utensils were damaged. The premises of the High Priest
too was damaged.
Many army camps were established around the temple area and devotees were not permitted
to enter the Fort. Later, after great persuasion by the North least Provincial Council
officers, the former President of Sri Lanka, Mr Premadasa, allowed access to the temple
for the Priest, the holder of the temple keys, a cleaner and three or four devotees only.
This access was allowed once a day and again the army at the temple premises had to
agree to it. No praying rituals (poojas) were held, only lamps were lit by the priest. The
other devotees had to stand miles away from the temple and they would worship facing the
Swami Malai (Fort).
In May 1996 the state army restricted the number of devotees entering the temple during
the festival period to between thirty five and fifty people only, and then shut the
entrance gate of the Fort on the others. When the Chairman of the Town Council protested
over the armys action, he was badly beaten up.
The intensity of Buddhist fundamentalism was visible in another incident...
The statue of the Hindu God Pillaiyar (Ganesh), worshipped not only by Hindus, but also
sometimes by Buddhists was removed from the temple by a Sinhala Buddhist and thrown into
the sea. The vicious person later scribbled on the wall of the temple: "God Ganesh
has gone for a bath". It is this kind of barbarism and intolerance which exist in a
country claiming to have been visited by Buddha who preached compassion, tolerance and
Unlike the above two temples, Naguleswaram temple at Keerimalai in
Jaffna was subjected to a different kind of treatment. The state army left this temple to
the care of the state air force which dropped, not flowers from the sky, but deadly bombs.
On 16th October 1990 about 4 pm three bombs were dropped. The first one fell on the front
of the temple destroying two temple chariots and other buildings, the second one fell on
the southern courtyard of the temple destroying the premises of the priest....
The Air Force .... came again after two days, on 18th October 1990, about 2.30 pm, and
dropped two more bombs on the very same temple. It was a special day and nearly a thousand
devotees were in the temple area at that time. They all fled in panic in different
directions trying to save their lives. Many were injured in the stampede. The temple and
its magnificent kopuram, the halls, the library that possessed valuable palm leaf
manuscripts, books, and many other statues were damaged by the bombings. All these took
place in spite of the unmistakable temple identification flags which were flying on all
four corners of the temple, as instructed by the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Naguleswaram is not the only temple destroyed by the bombing carried out by the Sri
Lanka Air force. The Thurga Thevi temple at Tellipalai Jaffna, a centre of great
veneration. was also bombed in May 1992 resulting in deaths and destruction.
There are countless numbers of temples that were set on fire, damaged or destroyed due
to bombing and shelling by the Sri Lankan government forces during the last twenty five
Since 1977 the number of Hindu temples damaged, desecrated or destroyed by the bombing,
shelling, arson and over weapons would be in the region of two thousand. A more accurate
figure could not be obtained because of the escalating war. But the Department of Hindu
Affairs was able to gather some information on the number of temples damaged between 1983
and December 1990 and the estimated cost of the repair. According to the Department's
report 1,479 temples had been damaged in eight districts of the North East Province, but
they too were cautious concerning the accuracy of this figure.
The destruction of temples is only one aspect of the Sri Lanka's cultural genocide.
There are many other methods,
- such as arrest of Hindu priests, removing their sacred thread, beating them up, or
humiliating them by keeping them incarcerated as Tiger suspects;
- firing shells on the devotees gathering at the temple on festival days so that no
festival can be conducted;
- arresting and detaining devotees on their way to temples especially during festival
- desecrating the temples and prayer hall of Ramakrishna Mission by the police entering
with their boots on;
- not appointing teachers who could teach Hinduism in the schools while at the same time
appointing teachers of other denominations to teach religious studies other than Hinduism
to Hindu students;
- appointing Sinhala Buddhist teachers in the places of Tamil Hindu teachers thus forcing
students to follow their studies in Sinhala medium and to study Buddhism;
- indiscriminate bombing and strafing from naval gun boats;
- artillery shelling on the Deepavali Festival day and other festive days;
- 'discovering' ruins of Buddhist temples in the Tamil homeland by Sinhala Buddhist
Ministers and Buddhist archaeologists working for the Sri Lankan Government's
- forcibly removing Tamil residents in their thousands to refugee camps and settling
Sinhala Buddhists in their place offering armed protection and new amenities including new
Buddhist temples and Buddhist monks;
- erecting Buddha statues in prominent places in the 'Emil homeland; creating Sinhala
Buddhist settlements in the lands belonging to Hindu temples;
- converting Hindus as Buddhists by enticing them with the offer of economic advantages;
implementing permanent birth control methods among Hindus living in plantation areas;
destroying schools, libraries and community centres;
- killing experts in herbal medicine, art and culture, in particular folk drama and art.
At this juncture the inevitable questions arise: why do a large number of people
following a religion which preaches love, compassion and tolerance, act in complete
contrast to these Buddhist principles? How do they become imbued with such deep seated
Why did members of the Buddhist Sanga, including the prelates of Asgiriya and Malwatta
actively involve themselves in fostering and promoting Buddhist fundamentalism? Why do
Buddhist monks join the armed forces to kill Tamils, and why does the Maha Sanga donate
money to the government's war fund?
How have they arrived at a situation where members of the administration, from the
President to the ordinary security guard and the members of the armed forces prostrate
themselves before the Buddhist political monks and imbibe their chauvinism?
Here one thing in particular must be made clear and that is that there is no religious
conflict between the Hindus and the Buddhists. Sinhala Buddhists are making fiery attempts
through the World Fellowship of Buddhists to portray the national liberation struggle of
the Tamils as a mere religious conflict..... (and) to use this false portrayal to seek the
help of Buddhists all over the world, pretending that Buddhists and Buddhism are being
attacked by Hindu Tamils....
In the past Buddhist fundamentalists and members of the Maha Sanga were successful in
scuttling attempts to solve the national question. In 1957, S W R D Bandaranaike, the then
Prime Minister and leader of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party,
negotiated an agreement with S J V
Chelvanayakam, the leader of the Federal Party. In 1965 Dudley Senanayake, the Prime
Minister and leader of the United National Party,
entered into an agreement with S J V
Chelvanayakam. Subsequently, in 1984, when J R Jayawardane of the United National
Party was in power as President of the country he convened an
all party conference to find a solution. Again, in
1987 the Indo-Sri Lanka agreement was entered into
between President J R Jayawardane and the Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.....
The prevailing unfortunate situation in Sri Lanka is the result of merging the
concepts of country, Sinhala race and Buddhism, the cumulative effect of which has emerged
as Sinhala Buddhist fundamentalism.
It was Mahanama, the author of the Mahavamsa, a Buddhist chronicle, who set the stage
for this painful drama. Actors carrying the myths, fantasies, superstitions and fables
from the Mahavamsa, particularly the Duttugamunu episode, gave birth to "superior
race", "sons of the soil" and "dhammadipa" theories. The
actors at each period in history varied the form but the substance remained the same.
These myths and superstitions were put forward as historical facts and whilst propagating
militant role of Buddhism they pronounced that 'only a Buddhist had the legitimate right
In the 1930s Aryan racial superiority propagated by the Nazis in Germany, was echoed in
Ceylon through Don David Hewavitharane who changed his name to
Anagarika Dharmapala. Others like Munidasa
Kumarathunga (writer), Piyadasa Sirisena(editor: Sinhala Jathiya), A. E. Goonesinghc
(trade union leader and publisher of Viraya), followed the footsteps of Anagarika
The origin of the Sinhalese people was traced to the Aryan race and they were elevated
to a "master race" by these "historians". People other than Sinhala
Buddhists were called as "infidels of a degraded race" and "unbelievers and
men of evil life". Sinhala Buddhists were called upon to unite under one flag and to
wage a holy war under a leader equal to that of Hitler's calibre, against the non
"The Sinhalese are a unique race in as much as they can boast that they have no
slave blood in them and never were conquered either by pagan Tamils or European
vandals...the Sinhalese stand as the representatives of Aryan civilisation,"
Anagarika Dharmapala said
Monks blessing Sinhala soldiers at the war front in the Jaffna Peninsula in the Tamil
The racist policies of Hitler and Mussolini were well received and emulated by local
(Sinhala) leaders during this time.
"We are one blood and one nation. We are a chosen people. The Buddha said that his
religion would last for 5000 years. That means that we as the custodians of that religion
shall last as long".
These words were uttered in 1939 by D S Senanayake who later became the first Prime
Minister of Ceylon after independence. The present President Chandrika Bandaranayake's
recent launch of the programme "We are Sri Lankan: One people One nation' at
Anuradhapura is the modern day equivalent of D S Senanayake's Mein Kampf....
Did Buddha ever come to Ceylon is another question which no one dares to raise now.
Professor Paranavitana, an ardent Sinhala Buddhist, absent mindedly said in one meeting
that there was no justification for the belief that the Buddha did visit the island of
Ceylon. This caused a huge outburst and a torrent of abuse was heaped on Paranavitana.
Though Buddhas visit to Ceylon is described in Mahavamsa, Dipavamsa, and
Vamsatthappakasini, each account varies in certain respects. However all three allege that
the Yakkhas, the original inhabitants of the island. were harassed and tormented by Buddha
who forced them to flee. According to Vamsatthappakasini
"Buddha used his supernatural powers to harass the Yakkhas with eleven different
types of afflictions. Torrential rains and hurricanes descended on them. They were pelted
with showers of stones, weapons, burning embers, hot ashes and mud. Cold and humid winds,
storms, and darkness torment and terrify them".
Buddha was said to have been "victorious over enemies", and in another story
as "jina" or "conqueror". To quote from Mahavamsa
"Lanka was known to the Conqueror as a place where his doctrine should shine in
glory and from Lanka filled with Yakkhas, the Yakkhas must (first) be driven forth,"
so that Lanka would be a "fit dwelling place for men''.
Pujavaliya, a prose work of the 13th Century, says
"This island belongs to the Buddha himself, it is like a treasury filled with the
Three Gems. Therefore the residence of wrong believers in this island will never be
permanent, just as the residence of the Yakkhas of old was not permanent".
Buddhist Monks applying
to join the Sri Lanka army
Here non Buddhists are referred to as wrong believers. The actions attributed to Buddha
are now taken as a precedent to justify the continuing myth of racial superiority from
Duttagamunu to Chandrika Bandaranaike.
Out of the thirty seven chapters in the Mahavamsa the author Mahananna has devoted
eleven chapters to the life of Duttagamunu whose racism and militarism are
enthusiastically followed by successive Sri Lankan governments up to and including
Chandrika Bandaranaike's regime.
In his war against Ellaalan, Duttagamunu's killings of Tamils is portrayed as no more
unpious an act than the actions of Buddha as he terrified the Yakkhas and forced them to
flee from the island.
"Only one and a half human beings have been slain here by thee O Lord of men. The
one had come unto the refuge the other had taken on himself the five precepts. Unbelievers
and men of evil life were the rest, no more to be esteemed than beasts".
This is how the exploits of Duttagamunu were recounted to him by eight men of Bikkuhood
- arahats - after his victory over the Tamils which entailed the "killing of thirty
Tamil Kings" and the "destruction of millions". It is no surprise therefore
that the present day.... killings of Tamils are put forward by modern
"historians", as "erasing out Tamil terrorists".
It is also disturbing to note that Duttagamunu's mother, Vihara Mahadevi, who
accompanied her son with five hundred monks in the war against Tamils, was filled with a
Hitler-like blood thirstiness. According to the Mahavamsa, when pregnant with Gamunu she
would long to "eat the honey that remained when she had given twelve thousand Bhikkus
to eat of it, and then she longed to drink (the water) that had served to cleanse the
sword with which the head of the first warrior among King Elara's (Ellalan) warriors had
been struck off, (and she longed to drink it) standing on this very head..."
Here we must understand the connection between this description of
Duttagamunu's mother and the pinning of a Vihara Mahadevi badge to the uniforms of young
Sinhala women of the Sri Lankan army women's corps as recently as a year ago, when they
completed their training under the rule of President Chandrika Bandaranaike.
Over the years (Sinhala) Prime Ministers and Presidents have participated in such
events, implanting the same blood thirsty racism into the war mission of the newly
qualifying cadets. Chandrika Bandaranaike's call upon the armed forces to save the
country, publicly praising them, promoting them to the highest positions of office,
glorifying war and allowing Buddhist monks on to the battle field to bless the army for
their victory, are all part of her 'military solution' to the Tamil national
advertisement appearing in August 1996 in a leading Sinhala newspaper "Lanka
Deepa" called upon the "Brave sons of Duttagamunu's lineage to join the
navy". The imagery used confirms the racist nature of the actions of the present
government. No wonder that the continuity of racism in Sri Lanka and its nightmarish
growth into fascism, have become a horrifying spectre on the world stage.
The victory ceremonies that took place in Jaffna
and Colombo after the capture of the vacated Jaffna peninsula in December 1995 by the
Sri Lankan army were made to remind the "conquests'' of Mahavamsa fame. Chandrika
Bandaranaike, who is both the President of Sri Lanka and Commander-in-Chief of the armed
forces, General Anurudha Ratwatte, the Deputy Defence Minister, and the Commanders of the
Army, Navy and Air Forces, all became reincarnations of Duttagarnunu, Sapumal Kumara and
their retinue. They were praised for bringing Lanka 'under one parasol of State" and
'making Lanka fit for humankind' by destroying Tamil 'terrorists'.
The war and the killings of Tamils were rationalised and celebrated by them whilst
evoking the past legends and myths. "Not for the joy of sovereignty but for the
religion do I wage this battle" Duttagamunu has declared during his war. The present
regime too declared and glorified their war in similar fashion.
Buddhist Monk inspects Sri Lanka artillery at the war front
Duttagamunu, the old conqueror, marched with "Buddha's relic in his
spear", proclaiming violence in the name of piety. Whereas the new avatars paraded
with the latest weapons supplied by the USA, China and Israel, and their
Buddhist lion flag, proclaiming "war for
In a pompous ceremony held in Colombo,
''exalted one", President Chandrika, was presented a scroll on a platter that
proclaimed the capture of Yappa Patna (Jaffna) reminiscent of the conquests of the past,
by General Ratwatte. The President and the Generals of today were of course masked
with symbols of acceptability, with white lotuses and doves, using kind, compassionate
words to present an attractive humane face to the outside world.
Like the eight arahats who told Duttagamunu that he had killed only one and a half
human beings, the sons and daughters of Goebbels employed by the media today, say that all
who are killed in the North and East provinces of Sri Lanka are not Tamil civilians, but
terrorists, murderers, and megalomaniacs. A selected few sons were sent abroad by
President Chandrika to propagate her "Dhamma". It was not the branches of the Bo
tree that they took with them, but instead lessons of deceit, lies and disinformation
learnt from international masters.
Since 'independence' in 1948 the sons and daughters of the 'master race' who graduated
from the school of Buddhist fundamentalism have successfully institutionalised racism
through the Citizenship Act, Parliamentary
Elections (amendment) Act, the Srima - Sastri pact,
Sinhala Only Act, the
constitutions, the Prevention of Terrorism Act and the
Emergency Regulations etc.
Realising that "only a Buddhist had the legitimate right to rule", Solomon
West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (President Chandrika Kumaratunga's father) abandoned
Christianity and become a Buddhist when he entered politics.
He formed the first communal organisation called the Sinhala Maha Saba (Sinhala
Great Council) in 1937, four years after the death of Anagarika Dharmapala. Since then he
became the political heir to Anagarika Dharmapala's Buddhist fundamentalism.
He came to power with the
Only" and the support of the United Monks Front. His wife, Srimavo (the present
Prime Minister of Sri Lanka) carried forward the same fundamentalist principles while also
"Tamil people in Sri Lanka have always been among the most privileged minorities
in the world... You speak of oppression of the Tamils. That is your propaganda. There
could have been administrative mistakes, errors of judgement; but oppression or deliberate
She and her government promulgated the
Republican Constitution in 1972, in which Buddhism was elevated to the "foremost
place" and it became the government's duty to "protect and foster"
By this act she became the first person to destroy the secular nature of the state by
recourse to the constitution itself. Further, constitutional status was given by
her to Sinhala as the country's only official language.
In 1961, during the non violent struggle of the
Tamils (Satyagraha) Srimavo declared a state of emergency and sent the state army to
the Tamil homeland and in justifying it she declared, at times like these we must
lay aside political and religious differences. This is the hour of everybody to unite
against the enemies of the nation and of the people'. Here non-violent Tamils were
referred to as enemies of the nation and people. This worst rhetoric of nationalism was
the result of her close association with two Sinhala Buddhist fanatical organisations
called Campaign for the Protection of Motherland and the Sinhala Bala Mandalaya.
Junius Richard Jayawardane, former President of Sri Lanka, preached "Dharmishta
Society" and Buddhist values, but practised fascism. His espousal of "one
nation one people" and his perception of the Tamil national liberation struggle as
"terrorism" was aired publicly in his opening address to the Parliament in
February 1984, when he said
"The borders of Sri Lanka are Point Pedro and Devinuwara in the north and south;
Batticaloa and Colombo in the east and west We have to combat "terrorism and defeat
it with all the resources at our command. We may have to equip ourselves to do so at the
expense of development and social and economic welfare plans. Let us then unitedly decide
to do so and as one nation and one people bend ourselves to this task".
In an interview with the correspondent of London Daily Telegraph (11-7-83) he reflected
his fascist stand:
"I have tried to be effective for sometime but cannot. I am not worried about the
opinion of the Tamil people now. Now we cannot think of them. Not about lives or of their
opinion about us. Nothing will happen in our favour until the terrorists are wiped out.
Just that. You cannot cure an appendix patient until you remove the appendix. The more you
put pressure in the north the happier the Sinhala people will be here. Really' if I starve
the Tamils out, the Sinhala people will be happy".
Walpola Rahula, a Buddhist Monk and a University Vice Chancellor, justified violence to
'save Buddhism'. There were many others. L H Mettananda, F R Jayasurlya, K M P Rajaratna,
Cyril Matthew, Iriyagolla, Gamini Dissanayake, Lalith Athulath Mudali are but a few. The
new "conqueror" Chandrika Bandaranaike, by following the crude racism of her
parents, descended quickly to a level of fascism that would delight modern day neo Nazis.
At first Buddha asked the Yakkhas, the aborigines of Ceylon, only for a place to sit,
but finally he drove them from their homeland. Vijaya, the supposed founder of Sinhala
race, invaded the island of Ceylon with his followers and married Kuveni, a native
Yakkhini princess, He conquered the island and its people with her help. When he achieved
full control and power he did not proclaim her as his queen but chased her and their two
children away and banished them.
Chandrika Bandaranaike, following the footsteps of Buddha and Vijaya and other Sinhala
Buddhist political leaders who reneged on the agreements and pacts with the Tamil
politicians since the 1920s, asked the Tamils to cast their vote to her "for peace and not war" and after they did, she
removed her mask and terrorised them from their homeland with her programme of "war for peace" to create "one people one
The original inhabitants, the Yakkhas and the Nagas, were dehumanised and demonised by
the Buddhists, and the Veddas (another indigenous people of the island) have now been
stripped of their language, culture and way of life and forced to assimilate with the
Sinhalese. Tamils living in the plantation areas are facing a similar fate. In the case of
the Tamils living in Tamil Eelam, where assimilation was not possible,
Chandrika Bandaranaike chose destruction by war. Does she
know how many thousands of bombs her forces have dropped on Tamils so far? Does she know
the extent of death and destruction caused from shelling by her forces?
We were told that King Asoka had a troubled conscience after his mass killings.
Similarly it was suggested that Duttagamunu too had a troubled conscience after he killed
millions of Tamils. But we have yet to see a President, Prime Minister or General in Sri
Lanka with a troubled conscience. This is the terrible consequence of the reality of a
deeply ingrained Buddhist fundamentalism that has been revived and rejuvenated time and